Tau Pan, Nov 2017

Safari at Kwara

During November the Tau Pan pride were seen very regularly in the area near to camp, and made a magnificent sight when found together; the five black-maned males together with two females and their three cubs. Once there was a lovely sighting of the impressive males lying together bonding through grooming each other, showing their softer side. Their more aggressive nature came to the fore when a female came to the watering hole with two cubs. One of the males spotted the cub and chased after it, the other four in hot pursuit. The cub managed to dash for cover and disappeared – a very lucky escape for the little one who would very possibly have been killed in an act of infanticide. Other prides were located at Deception Valley and Sunday Pan. At the start of the month as the dry season came to an end they were looking lean and hungry, but after the first rain showers the antelope started to drop their young and food was suddenly easy to come by again.

The antelope species seen during November included oryx, kudu and springbok.  The guests really enjoyed the lambing of the springbok. We were sometimes able to see the antelope giving birth and watched the youngsters wobbling to their feet to take their first steps. Within a few days they were chasing each other around and pronking. This was a time of easy pickings for the predators and we saw the resident male cheetah on springbok kills on successive days.

A few elephants were seen in the Tau Pan area, relishing the last of the Tsamma Melons. It was an indication of how good last years rains were that there were still many of these melons left at the end of the dry season, they would usually have mostly been consumed by now.

Leopard were not seen often, but were heard mating right inside camp, so we hope that a family will be produced in the months to come.

Bat-eared foxes were often seen foraging around Tau Pan. They were denning and had small cubs of about three months old who kept us entertained with their games of chase. The black-backed jackal also had young puppies; we saw them trying to pounce on ground squirrels. An African wildcat was seen on the western side of the pan hunting for birds, but didn’t succeed as the wide-open area didn’t have enough cover from which it the cat could launch its ambush.

Two honey badgers were seen digging for mice, but with no success.  In an example of commensalism, Pale Chanting Goshawks were perched nearby hoping for the opportunity to snatch a lizard or rodent flushed from the ground by the honey badgers.

November was a very productive month for birding. Up to twelve secretary birds have been visiting the camp watering hole every lunchtime as well as yellow-billed kites, bateleur and tawny eagles.

During the first part of the month guests and guides saw the Central Kalahari at its most brutally harsh. Although there had been some small showers, they just seemed to increase the humidity. Temperatures rocketed as high as 42 degrees and although game drive sightings were still good, animals were quick to hide in the shade as the sun rose. Then, in the third week of November the heavens opened and heavy rains arrived to quench the thirsty earth, bringing a respite from the heat.  There were currently plenty of plants in bloom including the umbrella thorn acacia and trumpet thorn giving guests the chance to experience the fragrant scents of the springtime bush.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, October 2017 Sightings

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October is the hottest and driest month for the Central Kalahari region with scorching winds and extreme midday temperatures. The intensity of the conditions was building ahead of the forthcoming rainy season which will bring welcome relief to the desert animals.

The coalition of six magnificent black-maned male lions were seen often at the camp watering hole and more than once they serenaded our guests with impressive roaring performances during the night.  As the dry season progressed, predators’ home ranges increased in size as the animals have to travel further and further to find food. This meant that we started to see some new individuals to the area who are not part of the Tau Pan pride. A nomadic lioness and cub were seen drinking at the watering hole. They were markedly less familiar with the safari vehicle than our resident lions, growling and snarling quite aggressively. Another new lioness and two young males were spotted on our northern fire break and also towards the airstrip.

Piper’s Pan is a stunning stretch of perfectly flat grass a few kilometres across.  This area is difficult to access when it is wet, but very productive in the dry season. In October we located two male cheetah located resting under a bush, plus another female cheetah at San Pan. There were plenty of wildebeest, red hartebeest, oryx and a different pride of lions at Piper’s Pan.

As always, the desert provided a good chance to see some of the smaller predators. Honey badgers were seen being more aggressive than usual, perhaps because there is less availability of food. Bat-eared foxes were seen often as well as the much rarer Cape Fox.

The landscape around Tau Pan was verdant and green following the huge fire earlier in the year. The acacia trees were in flower and other plants were starting to bloom including the pink flowers of the Devil’s Claw, Botswana’s National flower.

Cape cobras were seen at Phukwe Pan and also at San Pan.  Both times these large golden snakes were seen hunting, looking for prey species such as mice, lizards and ground squirrels.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, September 2017 Sightings

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At the start of October the fire in the Tau Pan area was still raging, sweeping westwards in a wave some thirty kilometres across and leaving behind a very changed landscape. Tall golden grasses were replaced with scorched earth. However, by the middle of the month the new green shoots had come through and were these were much relished by the antelope species.

One morning we were conducting a bushman walk when we saw a small pride of 2 adults and a cub drinking at the camp watering hole. The camp was quickly radioed to bring a vehicle so that the guests could get some close-up photographs of the lions. We were surprised to see that the animals were not part of our regular Tau Pan pride as it is fairly unusual to see intruders in the area. The next day our resident pride was back to drink, this time two lionesses with three cubs. As if keen to reclaim their place at the heart of our operations they then spend the following day hanging out by Room 2. We found the five impressive black-maned lions resting nearby.

Cheetah were seen hunting springbok, but without much success. Jackals, bat-eared foxes were often seen foraging for insects around the Tau Pan area. On one lucky occasion we also saw two honey badgers snuffling around. General game was good including big herds of oryx and springbok.

In the afternoons, vultures and eagles were seen coming to the watering hole to drink.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, August 2017 Sightings

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August was an interesting time in the Central Kalahari, with some dramatic changes to the landscape at the end of the month. As usual the Tau Pan pride of lions were often seen near to the lodge and increasingly at the waterhole since the natural pans were long dried up. More than once, two of the male lions spent the whole day by the watering hole sleeping off a big feast from the night before. The impressive black-maned male lions often called during the night and that helped us to locate them the next day. After they had been particularly vocal one night the guests and guides were amused to observe in the morning that without exception all the antelopes had migrated off to the opposite side of Tau Pan to avoid the lions or perhaps to get a more relaxing night’s rest. One of the resident lionesses was seen feeding with her cubs on an oryx calf. Her growing cubs were getting used to the safari vehicles; she also introduced them to the camp watering hole, so we hope we will see much more of them in the future.

Different cheetah and leopard individuals were located during the month. We watched a sub-adult female leopard trying her luck at Deception Valley, but she missed on that occasion. A coalition of cheetah brothers was spotted during a day trip. Initially they were hunting, but as the temperature rose they decided to rest in the shade. Some very patient guiding was rewarded when guests managed to get good photos of a male cheetah who is known to be particularly skittish. With time, the guides hope to can build his confidence and encourage him to be less camera-shy.

There were a good number of springbok herds around Tau Pan area and as in previous recent months they have developed a habit of pronking during the sunset hour making for spectacular images. Blue wildebeest were seen in large herds and oryx appear to be increasing in number. Red hartebeest were encountered at Phukwe Pan and also Tau Pan where they were close to the road enabling great memories for some very happy guests who were seeing these antelope for the first time despite having been on safari many times. Ostrich, bat-eared foxes and caracal were also seen in the Tau Pan area.

At the start of August, the vegetation was still dense and whilst the long golden waving grasses made for a stark and beautiful landscape, there were some occasions when we lost sight of animals as they went into the undergrowth. All that was about to change in a very dramatic way. Towards the end of the month a huge bush fire, some 20-30 kilometres across, swept through the area. Over the course of 6 days our team watched the glow on the horizon of the night sky getting ever closer. At the face of the fire the flames were 2-3 metres high, with whole trees burning like torches. As our staff were bravely ensuring that the fire did not threaten the camp itself, they noted the animal behaviour. These types of burns are very normal phenomenon in the Central Kalahari so it is by no means an unusual situation for the creatures who live here. The oryx stayed remarkably calm, wandering very close to the fire and sedately walking out of its way. The springbok kept themselves on the shorter grass of the pans. True to their nature, only the wildebeest seemed in the slightest bit distressed and spent some time galloping around. Even as the fire was raging, Tawny Eagles and Pale Chanting Goshawks stayed ahead of the flames, opportunistically snatching rodents who were fleeing. As soon as the fire had consumed its fuel and passed on by, black-backed jackals were quickly on the scene, picking through the ashes hoping to find some tasty toasted rodents.

Within days the pioneer grass was starting to push through new green shoots, much appreciated by the grazers who seemed to prefer the palatable young stems to the less nutritious dry stalks that the fire destroyed. We were fortunate that the area directly in front of the lodge did not burn, so the view was as beautiful as ever. Whilst the new growth was coming through we enjoyed a concentration of game in the Tau Pan area which was unaffected by the fire.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, July 2017

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Tau Pan was closed for its annual maintenance during July, so we didn’t have the usual game drive reports, but that didn’t stop the animals from visiting. The Tau Pan pride, currently comprising five impressive black-maned male lions and two females, were often found near to the camp. The elevated position of the lodge gives a superb vantage point for the lions to look for game. More than once the they walked straight past our maintenance team as they crossed the ridge to visit the watering hole. One particular day, two of the male lions decided to take a long siesta in the exact spot where our maintenance manager needed to take some measurements. Needless to say, that particular job had to wait for another time.

From their tracks, we could see that leopard and jackal also passed through camp during the closed period.

We opened camp a couple of days before the end of the month and the highlights for those guests were sightings of cheetah and honey badger, as well as some lions close to camp.

Every morning there was a progression of birds flocking to the camp watering hole, first hundreds of doves, then dozens of guinea fowl and finally large numbers of sandgrouse flying in mesmerising formation. The camp is home to many passerine bird species such as crimson-breasted shrike, red-eyed bulbuls, groundscraper thrush and long-billed crombec. Out at the airstrip we saw double-banded coursers, fawn-coloured larks and blacksmith lapwings.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, June 2017

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Winter in the Kalahari has arrived and towards the end of the month the overnight temperature dipped below zero degrees Celsius for the first time this year. The verdant greens of the rainy season have now mellowed into a palette of golds, yellows and greys, creating the starkly beautiful landscape that the Kalahari is famed for.

The Tau Pan pride of 5 males and 2 females were looking healthy and well-fed. Oryx seemed to be the lions’ menu of choice during June and they were often seen stalking these desert antelope. In fact, the pride was seemingly so well-fed that on two occasions antelope were seen grazing fearlessly right next to the cats as they rested. It was quite a remarkable sight to see hunter and prey so relaxed in each other’s company. The lions were mainly to be found in the Tau Pan area and often in and around the camp where the slightly elevated terrain gave them a great view of the surrounding area as they scanned the wide horizon for their next likely meal.

The bushman walk conducted from the lodge is primarily aimed to demonstrate the hunter gatherer traditions of the San people. It is also an opportunity to take a closer look at smaller species of insects and plants. However, one walk last month gave a more adrenaline-fuelled experience when a male and female lion were spotted at the same time approaching from different directions. The female seemed to be heading towards the watering hole but waited when she saw the walkers. The guide sensibly decided to go back to camp and took the guests by vehicle to enjoy the lioness drinking at the watering hole. On another walk the guests were lucky enough to see a Cape Fox which was an unusual sighting to see on foot.

Leopards were seen a few times, mainly the resident female who was seen at the camp watering hole and on the road towards the airstrip. A male and female were heard calling each other in the Tau Pan area.

The cheetah female with her two sub-adult cubs still appeared to be healthy, though when we did see them hunting her youngsters lacked patience and startled the game, spoiling their hunt. The single resident male was also seen, but he tends to keep a low profile in order to avoid the other predators, notably the lions, in the area. A coalition of two male cheetah were also located in Deception Valley.

The drive to Deception Valley shows a change in geology and vegetation, with bigger trees becoming more common. Giraffe were seen browsing on the acacias and guests were able to observe how they moved upwind as they ate. This is because the acacia trees have remarkably evolved to release pheromones in to the air to ‘warn’ the other trees of danger causing them to release unpalatable tannins. In the valley itself guests enjoyed plentiful springbok, oryx and black-backed jackal.

There was also good general game in the Tau Pan area including herds of oryx, springbok and a group of 8 red hartebeest. In addition to jackals, different small families of bat-eared foxes were seen foraging for insects. Caracal, honey badger and the elusive aardwolf were amongst the smaller predators enjoyed by guests during June.
Tau Pan’s vast expanse makes it a great place to spot birds.

Sightings this month included the Pale Chanting Goshawk, Gabar Goshawk and Black-chested Snake-eagle. Flocks of ostrich were commonly seen. There were lots of wild cucumbers and Tsamma melons on the edge of the pans, a vital source of nutrition and moisture for the desert animals during the arid winter months.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, May 2017

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During May Tau Pan underwent a dramatic transformation; the lush green vegetation which had been a feature of the rainy season started to dry and take on autumnal hues of yellows and browns. The Tsamma melons started to ripen and could be seen dotting the landscape like surreal alien soccer balls. These fruits are a forbearer of the domesticated watermelon and provide a vital source of sustenance for a wide variety of desert birds and animals during the dry winter months including oryx, brown hyena and porcupine.

Large herds of oryx and springboks were still resident in the Tau Pan area, making the most of the nutritious grazing. Guests enjoyed watching the evening migration of antelope back into the centre of Tau Pan each evening where the wide-open spaces give a better chance of protection against predators. Regularly the springbok calves started pronking just before sunset, their beautiful colouration enhanced by the evening light. The behaviour of the oryx and springbok started to change with the arrival of breeding season and we saw males of both species fighting for dominancy.

Regular sightings of cheetah were enjoyed, particularly of a female with two sub-adult young. A different female with three younger cubs was around but very skittish as she desperately tried to keep her cubs hidden from the other predators, notably lions, in the area. Two male cheetah were found on a springbok kill near Leopard Pan and a routine visit by out mechanic to our camp watering hole turned out to be anything but boring when a different male cheetah burst into action, hunting a steenbok. Some lucky guests found a cheetah on the airstrip as they were waiting for their flight out of Tau Pan, showing that it pays to stay alert until the very minute that you leave.

Phukwi Pan was home to significant numbers of giraffe. Six adult bat-eared foxes were also seen in the area, competing aggressively for food with some jackal who were nearby.

Leopard were also seen drinking at the camp watering hole and these cats were seen frequently during May, including a female with two cubs.

The Tau Pan pride comprising five males and two females were seen often, including on a kill of a large kudu bull on which the pride feasted for three days. One of the females was initially not interested in being courted, however soon afterwards she came into oestrus and attracted the attention of three of the male lions. Eventually she was seen mating with one of them. Another two lionesses, visitors to the area from the Deception valley pride, killed a sub-adult Gemsbok.

Huge flocks of guinea fowl, doves and other seed-eaters descended upon the camp watering hole in the early mornings and late afternoons. Kori Bustards were seen striding across the pans. Other resident raptors included Pale Chanting Goshawks, Tawny Eagles and White-backed Vultures.

Interesting sightings of smaller mammals during May included African Wild Cat, Bat-eared foxes, duiker and Honey Badger.
As usual, the sunsets at Tau Pan were amazing and there is surely no better feeling than watching the sun going down in a vast expanse whilst enjoying a glass of wine. Perhaps the Big 5 should be renamed Big 6 to include the incomparable African sunset?

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Tau Pan, April 2017

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Although the surface water was drying up, the Tau Pan area still had good grazing following the heavy summer rains and general game was abundant, especially springbok and gemsbok. A small band of Red Hartebeest were still being seen as part of this mixed herd. Lots of jackals were found in the area and one evening guests witnessed a territorial fight between two males. Cheetah were frequently seen including a mother with two cubs.

In April, two leopards were seen frequently near to Tau Pan camp; they are believed to be a mating pair so we are hopeful of exciting new arrivals in due course. Leopards are usually solitary unless they are mating, so it was extremely special to find both male and female up in a tree together, especially in the Central Kalahari where trees are generally scarce and short! During the month, the female called a few times from camp itself during the night. Across at Phukwe Pan a different female leopard, who was very relaxed around the vehicle, was seen hunting.

In another remarkable sighting guests were watching two jackals playing together by the road when a sub adult female leopard appeared, seemingly out of nowhere. She made a high pounce onto one of the jackals, but since she did not follow up for the kill it was hard to tell whether this young leopard was trying to join in their game, or whether she was trying to chase the jackal away.

The leopards were not the only cats mating during April. An amorous pair of lions were found and we were able to watch them for 30 minutes. Although the lioness seemed quite shy and wanted to take cover in the bushes, the male had no such inhibitions and aggressively made sure that she didn’t stray off, preferring her to remain in the open.

The Tau Pan pride of five males and two females spent plenty of time near to camp where they kept a watchful look out for game coming through to the camp watering hole to drink. On one occasion, the five male lions roared right next to camp for most of the night causing much excitement for our guests. The next morning two of these lions were seen in front of camp having a drink and later, another three were heard calling by Room 9. We drove around to find them relaxed and sunning themselves by one of the roads.

The day trips yielded good sightings of cheetah, hunting lionesses and two male lions on a kill. One particular day a beautiful young leopard cub was found alone up in a tree – we suspected that its mother had gone off to hunt. Aside from the predators, the day drives allowed us to show a wide variety of species to guests including giraffes, gemsboks, springboks, wildebeest, bat-eared foxes and honey badgers.
Although the surface water was drying up, the Tau Pan area still had good grazing following the heavy summer rains and general game was abundant, especially springbok and gemsbok. A small band of Red Hartebeest were still being seen as part of this mixed herd. Lots of jackals were found in the area and one evening guests witnessed a territorial fight between two males. Cheetah were frequently seen including a mother with two cubs.

Guests were intrigued to see a Secretary Bird passing by the vehicle, followed by a Black-backed Jackal. The jackal was not hunting the bird, rather he was opportunistically seizing on insects that the long-legged raptor had disturbed. It was very interesting to see a bird and a mammal working together cooperatively in this way.

Ground squirrels and mongoose were often seen in the Phukwi Pan area during April. Guests were able to observe how these small mammals carefully checked up at the skies when popping out of their holes, and for good reason. Pale Chanting Goshawks were often calmly waiting in nearby trees for the opportunity to swoop down and take one.

Sometimes the drama of the bush plays out on a small stage. Guests were watching two perched Fork-tailed Drongos chattering to each other. Suddenly one of the drongos attacked a praying mantis. The mantis defended himself by opening his wings and elevating his body, trying to give the impression of a larger size. The insect’s aggressive posed paid off and the bird left him alone to fight another day.

Tau Pan, March 2017

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The impressive Tau Pan pride were seen almost daily during March. They were mainly found towards the Pan area where there was the highest concentration of game and were often seen stalking oryx.

Seven lions, two lionesses and five males were seen finishing off an oryx carcass, apparently killed the previous night. They were surrounded by group of 13 jackals who were impatiently waiting for their turn, working together to try and make bold snatches at the kill whenever the opportunity arose. The lions became extremely irritated, chasing the jackals away repeatedly. Our guests were able to witness this spectacle for over 45 minutes, until eventually the lions moved off leaving just the skull and spine for the jackals and some waiting vultures to tussle over.

On another occasion, a guide called his guests through to the main area early as the pride had killed an oryx and were feeding right in front of camp.  One evening, a large male lion was seen chasing a single oryx for over a kilometre all the way from the open plain into an area of thick vegetation.

As often seems to be the case with this dynamic pride, the number of individuals ranged considerably, but usually they were seen in groups of a range between four and eight. One of our guides’ interest was aroused when he found a lioness on her own, having already seen the rest of the pride together earlier in the drive. He followed this single female and sure enough his intuitive reading of her behaviour was correct; his guests were lucky enough to see her tenderly reunite with her tiny cub of just one month old and pick the cub up in her mouth.

Leopards were seen a few times, including one on a springbok kill at San Pan, and another posing beautifully up a tree. Cheetah were not seen often during the early part of the month, but were being picked up much more regularly during the last two weeks, including a female with two cubs.

In an interesting drive on the return from San Pan 2 jackals killing an adult springbok. The antelope appeared to be nursing a previous wound and thus could not run away.

A rather skittish Brown Hyena was spotted; though highly mobile and shy it was wonderful to see this threatened species. There were also some fabulous sightings of the smaller predators during March including a very relaxed Cape Fox close to the road. This is a beautiful silver-grey fox with a yellow belly and a black tip to its tail. A caracal was also seen nonchalantly walking along one of the roads. These medium-sized cats with beautiful tufted ears are always a treat to see.

Oryx and springbok were in plentiful numbers in the Pan area and appeared to be enjoying the new shoots of the grasses. A small group of 3-4 red hartebeest was also seen as part of this mixed herd.  Springboks congregated in large number and were often seen running spontaneously and ‘pronking’. Giraffe were found in the Tau Pan browsing on Acacia trees and in large numbers at San Pan on top of the sand ridge.

There was still lots of birdlife in the pan during March, many water species such as Saddle-billed Storks were attracted to the large puddles of water which remained after the rains. Southern Pale Chanting Goshawks were numerous in the area. These elegant grey raptors have a varied diet of rodents, lizards and insects; this month one individual was seen feeding on a juvenile African Rock Python. Other notable birds of prey seen during March were Tawny Eagles, Bateleur eagles, Blac-shouldered Kites, Amur Falcons and Lanner Falcons.

Tau Pan, February 2017

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Big herds of general game were congregated at the pan area. The palatable grasses in the pan provide nursing mothers with good nourishment for their milk production which is vital at this time of year when the lambs and calves are feeding hungrily. The wide, open vistas of the pan mean that many grazer species can be viewed at the same time including springbok, zebra, wildebeest and oryx. One evening a dramatic fight between two male oryx was witnessed as they went head to head with their long, pointed horns. On this occasion the intruder only suffered wounded pride before he was successfully chased off. On another occasion guests chuckled at an oryx walking around wearing a ‘hat’, having got a substantial bush hooked onto his horns. Maybe the fashion will catch on?

The Tau Pan pride was seen on a regular basis, generally there were 4 male lions accompanying the 2 lionesses although sometimes the pride was as large as 9. Some brawling was spotted between the male pride members so it will be interesting to see how the hierarchy of this pride plays out over the coming months. A pair of lions was found mating over a two-day period; this appears to have been a very active mating season for the Tau Pan lions, so we look forward to the patter of tiny paws in due course. Oryx seemed to be a popular menu choice for the lions in the area this month; the Tau Pan pride were found hunting these large desert antelope, stalking them through the long grasses. The following morning a different pride were discovered feasting on an oryx that they had killed along the road to Passarge Valley. This substantial kill was enjoyed by the pride for 3 days.

A frequently-seen resident female cheetah was spotted attempting to hunt in the Tau Pan area, unfortunately her youngster hindered rather than helped so the prey escaped. Across at San Pan the young cheetah family consisting of mother and two cubs seemed to be faring a little better and they were found full-bellied and in great condition. Cheetah were seen regularly on the day trips to Passarge Valley, some sightings being extremely close to the road. On one occasion a male cheetah was seen showing great interest in a young springbok, unfortunately the long grasses meant that we were unable to see how that particular hunt played out in the end.

On a different trip to Passarge Valley a large male leopard was found walking along the road although he was a little skittish. Later the same day a sub-adult was found up on a branch and was relaxed enough for great photos. To top off a great ‘cat’ day, a caracal was found hunting although on this occasion he was unlucky.

All in all, February was a great month for cat sightings. Another beautifully relaxed leopard was found treed-up in a picture-perfect Umbrella-thorn Acacia in the Tau Pan area. Guests were also happy to see the usually shy African Wild Cats in broad daylight.

Giraffe bulls were also seen fighting near Phukwe Pan, using their long necks as leverage to land blows on each other with their horns (or more correctly ‘ossicones’). The contestants will try to dodge each other’s blows and then get ready to counter. This behaviour is known as ‘necking’ and is used to establish dominance The rest of the journey seemed relaxed as they browsed acacia trees before elegantly walking off into the bush.

Many bird species are also in full breeding season and it is great to hear that Secretary Birds have been found nesting. Both male and female Secretary Birds visit a nest site for almost half a year before egg-laying takes place, incubation is approximately 45 days and then it will be a further couple of months before the chicks fledge, so we look forward to enjoying this family’s progress for some time to come.