Nxai Pan, Feb 2018

F Pieterse.cat6thunderstorm at sunset nxai

After an exceptionally dry January which appeared to stop the usual zebra and wildebeest migration, we were hoping for late rains to arrive in February and we were not in the least disappointed. The gathering afternoon thunderclouds made for memorable sundowner stops with the different shaped clouds and colours giving some incredible photo opportunities.

Right from the start of the month we experienced very regular rainfall at Nxai Pan and as the wet weather continued the game started to return in large numbers. Every day, the herds of zebra, wildebeest and giraffe increased, congregating at the natural watering holes which had filled up at last.

With the return of the prey species, came the predators. The dominant male lions had not been seen for a while, they had probably followed the herds as they moved away, so we were delighted to find them back in Nxai Pan on 5th February, full bellied and resting after enjoying a good meal. They announced their return with plenty of calling that night and the following day were found reunited with the rest of the Nxai Pan pride comprising three females and six cubs. The young lions are at a very playful stage, engaging in games of chase and pulling each other down, all good practice in terms of learning essential hunting skills, but making for some charming photographs as well. The lions were making the most of the zebra herds and were seen feasting on kills.

Also back in the area after having been away for a little while was the resident male cheetah. He was looking in great condition. He is a very mobile individual, covering the whole area from the west to the east of the pan. A female cheetah with two sub-adult cubs were seen at the wildlife waterhole, surrounded by some very nervous zebras who were alarm calling.

Two wild dogs, an alpha male and alpha female were seen in front of the camp more than once, but were chased away by a breeding herd of elephants from the waterhole. They were also seen hunting springboks in the pan area.

A family of four bat eared foxes were seen regularly along the Middle Road of Nxai Pan. They could be seen looking for food such as grasshoppers and other insects amongst the grasses. Black-backed jackal were often seen near to the larger predators, hoping for the opportunity to scavenge from their carcasses.

Elephants were still in the area, but not in the huge numbers that we see at Nxai Pan during the dry season. Now that the natural pans had filled, they were using the opportunity to browse vegetation further away from the permanent water sources that they rely on at other times of the year.

Cooler weather provided good birding conditions and we had some exciting summer visitors to admire. Two Denham’s bustards were located during the month. This was an exciting sighting of an uncommon seasonal migrant to the area which has been classified as ‘near threatened’. Big flocks of black-winged pratincoles could be found near to the natural pans and the two permanent waterholes. Lots of vultures were in the area, waiting for the predators to make inroads in to the migrating herds.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, Jan 2018

MKidd.Cat6waterhole.jpg nxai

After some good early rains in November and December, January was much drier than expected and as the natural watering holes dried up, the game started to concentrate once again on the two man-made watering holes.  The camp watering hole was extremely productive with lots of elephants and mixed herds of giraffe, zebra, impala, buffalo and wildebeest, many accompanied by their new offspring. Jackals were often seen active in front of the camp. At the wildlife watering hole, the mix of game was a little different including kudu, springboks and oryx.

The unexpected dry spell in January seemed to confuse the zebra, wildebeest and giraffe herds who usually congregate in their thousands at this time of the year. The animals had started to arrive, but as the heat continued we saw their numbers decline again. Eventually towards the end of January the rains started in earnest, so it will be interesting to see what the herds decide to do next. There have been occasions in the past when the migration has returned for a second time in similar circumstances.

Three lionesses with six cubs were located trying to hunt some zebras, but as the area was so open they were not able to stalk close enough to launch a successful ambush. A couple of days later they obviously had more luck and were seen feasting on a zebra kill, surrounded by vultures and about twenty black-backed jackals. One time these cubs provided delightful photo opportunities by climbing some trees, to make the experience even better their three mothers started roaring.

One afternoon the guides spotted a single lioness who was previously known to us as part of the “Seven Sisters” walking from the middle of the pan to some bushes when all of a sudden two tiny lion cubs came out of the undergrowth to greet her. We were delighted to find this unexpected little family in Nxai Pan. The new additions brought the total number in the Nxai Pan pride to twenty, although they were most often seen in smaller sub-groups.

The resident male cheetah was seen looking in very good condition. Meanwhile the female cheetah with her two sub-adult offspring was venturing further afield and even seen towards Baines Baobabs.

At the start of January we started to see migratory birds in the area such as Abdim’s storks, steppe buzzards and blue-cheeked bee-eaters. Once the rains recommenced towards the end of the month we started to see new birds in the area that we would usually associate more with wetter areas such as African jacanas, black-winged practincoles and spurwing geese.

The increase in herbs and flowers in the area made for some interesting explanations during the bushman cultural walks. Along the road to Baines Baobabs there were lots of berries for the trackers to talk about in terms of their value to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the San tribe. In this area, the guides and trackers were also able to show guests some of the smaller points of interest such as dung beetles rolling their balls, and aardvark tracks. The famous baobab trees themselves were looking beautiful with seed pods and leaves.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, Dec 2017

F.Paschoal.Desert. Elephants in Nxai Pan. Guide - George. tour oparator - Safari Destinations(Kar

December was a month of change in Nxai Pan.  At the start of the month we were still receiving enormous numbers of elephants at the camp watering hole. Old bulls, younger bachelors and breeding herds congregated in their hundreds, together with wildebeest, buffalo and jackals. The desperately thirsty animals had to compete hard for their turn to drink, making for amazing game viewing from the main lodge area. One day, a young elephant climbed into the camp watering hole and then got itself very confused as to where the exit was. It’s elephant family and the camp staff watched nervously for a while as the calf tried in vain to clamber out. Eventually the matriarch elephant and her sisters worked together to show the youngster how it should be done.

Then, on the 4th December the first of the heavy rains arrived filling the natural watering holes. The trees, including the magnificent baobabs, all came into leaf, with many other species showing spring blossoms.  These changes finally allowed the elephants to relocate to other areas of the National Park to drink and browse.

Nxai Pan is well known for the seasonal migration of zebras and wildebeest who move into the area because of the highly palatable and nutritious grasses that grow in the pan once the rains have fallen. The number of zebras started increasing day and night in the pan and viewings were easy due to the short grass and wide open spaces. Lots of giraffe were arriving to the region as well.

The two dominant male lions and three lionesses with six cubs were seen together regularly in the area and seemed to be making the most of the zebras arriving into the area for their diet.

The resident cheetah family of three were located frequently and in some cases hunting. One day we watched them for an hour trying to catch a baby wildebeest, however they didn’t manage because it was too open for them to get within close range. The Nxai Pan male cheetah was also seen, especially on Baobab loop, and we witnessed him killing a male springbok.

The alpha male wild dog with a female were spotted with full bellies near to the National Park watering hole.

With the start of the rains some water birds arrived to the area including African jacana, black-winged pratincoles, Abdim’s storks, yellow-billed storks, painted snipes, egrets, white-faced ducks and black-winged stilts.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, Nov 2017

ThomasRetterath.cat7aardwolf nxai

“New Life” was the theme of the month at Nxai Pan during November. Birds were nesting, antelope were dropping their young, jackals had puppies, but the discovery of the month was an aardwolf den with a single cub. Aardwolf resemble a slender hyena in build, but these remarkable insectivores are actually in a separate taxonomic family. They are a prized sighting for any safari-goer, but to see their adorable cub with its black muzzle, pink ears and striped coat was an amazing treat. We were able to see them at the den most days towards the end of the month.

Several dens of black-backed jackals were found by our guides and we watched the adults kill guinea fowl at the Wildlife watering hole on several occasions, sometimes with their puppies watching on. Once we were able to watch the adults regurgitating for their young. The bat-eared foxes were also seen with cubs and were enjoying the increase in beetles and other insects following the early rain showers.

Elephants were increasingly accumulating around our camp watering hole, with numbers upward of 100 individuals seen regularly. Females with young as well as solitary bulls and bachelor herds were all observed in a seemingly never-ending stream during the day. As always, they were extremely protective of their water source, preventing other animals from drinking. Towards the end of the month two wild dogs appeared at the camp watering hole. They looked tired and desperate for a drink, but the elephants refused to let them quench their thirst.

Other species, such as buffalo, wildebeest, giraffe, impala and springbok still came hoping for the opportunity to have a turn at the water, but only rarely given a chance by the stubborn pachyderms. Watching the procession of animals in front of the lodge, and the interaction between them, was described by a guest as being like “non-stop National Geographic channel”.

After having been absent from the area for a little while we were very happy to see two male lions appear next to the staff village and make their way to the watering hole whilst we were having breakfast with our guests. The next day, a single lioness who showed signs of nursing also came to try and drink at the watering hole, but once again, the elephants were having none of it so this mother went away thirsty. The pride of lions comprising two males, three lionesses and six cubs were also seen resting by the old wildlife watering hole. This second source of water had congregations of different kinds of species including springboks with their lambs, giraffe and ostriches. The wildebeest were heavily pregnant so we expect their calving season to start very soon.

The resident cheetah family of three were still doing well and were even seen drinking at the camp watering hole. Another time, we watched them chasing down some springbok more than once and mostly they were very successful, although the sub-adults were still having some problems learning how to make the final kill. On one occasion we saw the two sub-adult females chasing off some jackals who had been following them for some time. The resident male cheetah was also seen in the area and a couple of times he was seen resting with female and her two daughters making a wonderful photographic opportunity of the four cheetahs together.

There was rewarding birding all over the area. Some of the migratory species returned for the summer months including steppe buzzards, black-winged pratincoles, Abdim’s storks and white storks. The ostriches were seen nesting near to the road, proudly brooding 12 eggs.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, October 2017 Sightings

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The month of October is the hottest month of the year in the desert. This year the first rain showers came earlier than usual, right at the end of September, so the trees started responding to the moisture by producing new green leaves. However, these small rainfalls were not sufficient to fill the natural pans, so the two watering holes artificially pumped with water by Kwando Safaris and Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) continued to be visited by huge numbers of animals.

Big herds of elephants from all directions came in every morning to the camp watering hole and stayed all day and most of the night, usually moving off to browse after midnight. The elephants were very protective over the water supply and rarely gave other animals a chance to drink, however we saw a new and interesting change in their behaviour. They were seen time and again giving way to a herd of buffalo who boldly came to drink, demanding respect from the elephants who allowed them complete access to the water until their thirst was quenched. The elephants were not as tolerant of the lions and one noisy night the elephants and lions roared at each other continuously as they debated drinking rights. In the morning we saw a pride of 11 lions still waiting for the elephants to move so that they could have access to water. The lions had the final word though; a few days later the two males were seen feasting on an elephant calf, surrounded by vultures. They stayed on this carcass for three days.

Because the camp watering hole continued to be the favourite place for the elephants to hang out, other animals were congregating at the Department of Wildlife watering hole. There we saw lots of springbok, impalas, kudu, wildebeest, zebras, ostriches and other birds. The springbok had started to drop their lambs. It was pleasant experience just to sit at this spot and watch the constant procession of creatures and birds coming to drink. Black-backed jackal were usually to be found in the area, chasing guinea fowl, occasionally with success.

One morning as we were at this watering hole there was a pride of 3 lionesses with 6 cubs. A few minutes later we saw springbok, wildebeest, zebras, impalas and ostriches coming to drink. The lionesses were alert and waiting for their moment to pounce. We watched for over an hour whilst they sized up the various prey animals and eventually they killed a zebra fifty metres away from the road. These lionesses stayed there for a day and the following morning we found different lionesses from the Nxai pride, two females with three larger cubs, on the same kill.

As we were watching the lionesses with cubs feeding on a zebra we saw some springbok running very fast about a kilometre away so we quickly drove that in that direction to see what was going on. We got there in time to see that 3 cheetah had managed to take down a springbok. This was a mother with her two sub-adult offspring. A different male cheetah was also seen during the month.

Day trips to Baines Baobabs continued to be rewarding and our guests always enjoy the salt pans, ancient trees and beautiful landscape. Game in the area included oryx, springbok, steenbok, warthogs, ostriches, kori bustards and many other birds.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, September 2017 Sightings

jvarley.Cat1 Elephant wallow

As the ongoing dry and hot season progressed, animal interactions were concentrated between the two water sources in the park, our own camp watering hole, right outside the main area, and the water point provided by the National Parks authority. Guests were able to enjoy relaxing drives watching the interactions between different species as they congregated to quench their thirst.

The Nxai Pan resident pride of lions were seen regularly during the month and were fifteen individuals in total including seven sisters, two dominant males and six cubs. Two of the females and the two large males were found on an elephant carcass near to camp. Our staff had been worried about the health of that particular elephant and had even called out the wildlife officers to check on it. We are not sure if it was eventually brought down by the lions, or died of natural causes, but the lions made the most of this enormous meal stayed on it for several days. It seems that they developed a taste for the meat because a few days later the same two males were found on an elephant baby kill. During the previous night we had heard roaring and screaming from the distressed herd.  The three females with six cubs tended to stay near to the National Parks watering hole; the antelope species were congregated there since the elephants were being aggressively dominant at the camp watering hole. The lions were seen eating zebra and kudu; the fast-growing family seem to be doing very well.

Our resident cheetahs, a single male and a mother with her sub-adult cubs were still in the area and appeared to be in very good shape. We watched the female taking down a springbok; it was an interesting sighting because the female cheetah did not kill the antelope outright. She paralysed it and waited for the sub adults to figure out how to finish the job. Time and again we watched them failing and coming mewing back to their mother for help but she was determined to make them learn from the experience, aggressively chasing off jackals who were impatiently waiting to scavenge. During September the youngsters were extremely energetic and curious, trying to practice their hunting skills on almost every animal they encountered including bat-eared foxes, jackals and wildebeest. However, at this stage they are lacking patience in stalking, bursting forward much too soon to be successful.

Just watching and waiting at the watering holes provided a continuous source of interesting action. Lanner falcons could be seen hunting doves, lions were stalking antelope and jackals were opportunistically looking for any opportunity to pounce or scavenge. On one occasion, a martial eagle managed to snatch a guinea fowl; it struggled to get airborne quickly with its heavy load and four jackals were seen running full speed hoping that the bird would drop its kill as it approached the trees.

Elephants were still seen in huge numbers, especially at the camp watering hole. Guests were thrilled to be able to watch the interaction between large bulls and breeding herds on a daily basis.  As guests were enjoying breakfast one morning a jackal was chasing guinea fowl. As the birds flew up into the air, the jackals ran around the elephants who started to shake their ears in irritation. Somehow in the process one elephant accidentally swatted a guinea fowl to the ground and it was eagerly scooped up by the lucky jackal.  On 29th September, just before Botswana’s Independence Day, Nxai Pan received some very welcome heavy showers which allowed the elephants some respite to look for water and food elsewhere.

Our day trips to Baines Baobabs continue to be a highlight for many guests. The birdlife is rewarding, with numerous species of passerines, including kestrels nesting in the acacia trees. After the rains at the end of the month we started to see some creatures, such as leopard tortoises, reappear after their hibernation.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, August 2017 Sightings

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The climate started to change during August, with night time temperatures increasing from lows of five degrees Celcius at the start of the month, to above fifteen degrees by the end of the month. Day time temperatures started to push above thirty degrees. The hotter days and lack of rainfall meant that game was heavily concentrated around sources of water, and our camp watering hole was by no means an exception.

Elephants tended to dominate the watering hole for the majority of every day – a spectacular sight for our guests to enjoy from the lodge, but rather problematic for the other animals who were forced to visit at first light before the pachyderms took over. Regular early morning visitors included kudu and a herd of eight buffalo. Spotted hyena were also seen at the camp watering hole, much to the consternation of some resident warthogs who finished their drinks very quickly before scurrying off into the bush with tails raised in alarm.

The Nxai Pan pride of 16 lions were also seen regularly and had divided into three groups:
Three females with three cubs aged thirteen months
Two females with four cubs of 6-8 months
Two sub-adult lionesses of approximately two years who are independent of the main pride.
The male lions moved between all three groups and were often seen near to camp.

The road that cuts through the middle of Nxai Pan was productive for smaller predators including regular sightings of the highly-prized aardwolf and numerous bat-eared foxes.

Cheetah sightings included a mother with her two offspring – now classified as sub-adults rather than cubs since they are more than a year old. A single male cheetah has also been located frequently. Both male and female leopard tracks were located in the camp area, though the cats themselves remained elusive.

The trip to Baines Baobabs was quieter in terms of game, but the view has changed. The trees have lost their leaves and are silhouetted against the dry, dusty pan. The landscape is much more open now that the lush summer vegetation has been grazed down.

The rise in temperatures meant that we started to see birds who are more associated with warmer weather in the region, such as the yellow-billed kite, red-capped lark and rufous-naped lark.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, July 2017

jvarley.Cat5 Elephant at waterhole

The days of lush green grass were now a distant memory as Nxai Pan fully converted to its semi-arid winter state. The vegetation was now predominantly grey and gold, allowing animals such as elephant, lion, cheetah and oryx to blend in perfectly with the colours and textures of the desert landscape.

During July, elephants continued to favour the camp watering hole in large numbers and our water pumps were running overtime to keep up with their insatiable thirst. Elephants are however not the cleanest of visitors, so every day it was necessary for our staff to clear the watering hole of mud and dung so that the elephants would find it suitable for drinking. The camp staff were only too well aware that failing to keep the water clean would mean the elephants coming to drink from the camp infrastructure, with expensive consequences. Maintenance of the watering hole is a ‘housekeeping’ service on a massive scale, but it gives our guests the privileged opportunity to see these magnificent animals drinking, bathing and interacting close to the lodge.

Unusually for Nxai Pan, a clan of spotted hyena have also started to visit the watering hole each morning. Bat-eared foxes and black-backed jackal are still regularly sighted.

The resident female cheetah with two sub-adults was located regularly in a beautiful area near to Nxai Pan. Her offspring are now approximately 10 months old and that means that the male will most likely be with her until the beginning of 2018 and the female for about 6 months longer. Now is a critical time for them to hone their hunting skills. On one occasion, they were seen dashing around; we initially thought that they were playing, but in fact they were chasing a bat-eared fox. Occasionally cheetah will kill and eat the foxes, but mostly they are just trying to drive them away so that they can’t disturb their hunt. The two youngsters were seen to be extremely relaxed around our vehicles, testament to the fact that the guides have patiently earned their trust since they were small cubs.

The Nxai Pan pride has now split into three different groups: 4 lionesses with 5 cubs of 2-3 months old, another pair of lionesses with 3 cubs of a similar age and finally a single lioness who we suspect has a newborn cub hidden nearby – from her engorged teats it seems likely that she is nursing. The male lions move between the different groups. One time a male lion was seen very intently focused on some wildebeest. Our guests held their breath as he started to stalk…. and then he promptly flopped down and fell straight asleep.  Food was clearly not his priority that particular day.

The general game is not as rich as during the green season, however wildebeest and springbok are still in the area. Oryx were seen near to Baines Baobabs area eating the tiger foot morning glory and digging for other sources of nutrients and moisture including the Kalahari water tuber. These desert-adapted antelope sensing that the dry season is where survival of the fittest is tested to the maximum.

Our guides were surprised to see a couple of bird species not usually seen at this time of year including the rufous-naped lark and yellow-billed kite. Ostriches were still plentiful and were just entering their breeding season, the males’ lower legs taking on a redder appearance during this important time of year. Other bird species commonly seen were helmeted guineafowl, kori bustard and northern black korhaan, the latter quiet when compared to the noisy summer displays that they produce.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

 

Nxai Pan, June 2017

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Nxai Pan camp was closed during June for its scheduled annual maintenance. This meant that we didn’t get to explore our wider game drive areas in the usual way, however the sanding and drilling did not in any way deter the animals flocking to the camp watering hole to drink and wallow.

Elephants, both breeding herds and large bulls, are continuing to show up in huge numbers and are draining water as fast as we can pump it. One even came and drank our swimming pool dry before it was repainted. It is a challenge for the camp staff and maintenance team to keep these thirsty animals satisfied to the extent that they don’t come investigating into the camp itself for other water sources, but their presence is always a thrill.

Buffalo were also seen during the month, mainly bulls in the morning and a breeding herd in the afternoon.

Other species observed drinking at the watering hole during the month included 3 cheetah, lots of giraffe, wildebeest and zebra.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)

Nxai Pan, May 2017

jvarley.Cat1 Elephant wallow

As Nxai Pan approached winter time there were lots of changes to animal behaviour and vegetation. The weather became colder and the pans started to dry up leaving two watering holes as the only sources of water. The camp watering hole was by far the busiest, being topped up daily via an eco-friendly water recycling system from our camp. Several species were seen here including buffalo, wildebeest, impala, a small harem of zebra and giraffe however the elephants remained dominant over this precious resource and were seen in their hundreds over the course of the month. The camp main area provided a great place to sit and watch the animal interactions during the day.

The Nxai Pan pride were covering more ground to search for food but were seen regularly. The pride still comprised two strong and healthy dominant males and seven lionesses. Two of the lionesses each had three young and all six cubs were doing well. During the month four of the females managed to kill a female giraffe and her calf – a massive feast which they and the six cubs enjoyed for a whole week. These tiny cubs appeared to have no fear of the game viewers which they approached in a bold manner.

The Nxai Pan pride were covering more ground to search for food but were seen regularly. The pride still comprised two strong and healthy dominant males and seven lionesses. Two of the lionesses each had three young and all six cubs were doing well. During the month four of the females managed to kill a female giraffe and her calf – a massive feast which they and the six cubs enjoyed for a whole week. These tiny cubs appeared to have no fear of the game viewers which they approached in a bold manner.

A mother cheetah with her now sub-adult cubs were still thriving and seen in different areas, often on a kill. We had great sightings along Middle Road where we saw them trying their luck on a springbok. The cubs were stalking whilst their mother was watching and seemed to be coordinating their behaviour. A single male cheetah was seen resting twice in the southern part of the area and is looking healthy.

An exciting discovery was made towards the end of the month when we identified tracks of a female leopard with very small cubs near to the airstrip. Although we haven’t managed to see the cats themselves yet, we hope that we will find them soon.

As the grasses were cropped shorter by grazers, the landscape opened up and it became easier to see some of the small cats and genets. African Wild Cat were seen, and we were thrilled to see a caracal mother with a kitten around the camp island. Wild dogs were located on the easterly side of the pan. Aardwolf were encountered foraging several times along middle road, sometimes in close proximity with bat-eared foxes and being followed by Cape Crows. We are hopeful that the aardwolf might be denning in the area as they were seen very regularly.

The birdlife in the Nxai Pan was still outstanding. Many birds flocked at the camp watering hole in the early mornings before flying further afield to look for food.

Our trips to Baines Baobabs remained a highlight for many guests during their stay at Nxai Pan. The day is planned to include a picnic lunch so that the guides can take their time to show varied aspects of this semi-arid ecosystem including different terrain, sandy areas, trees and grasses. The salt pan towards the famous trees had less water and was tinted red due to an accumulation of algae. The baobabs were losing their leaves so were starting to look quite different. Animals seen along the route included elephants, oryx, steenbok, springbok and ostrich. General game in the Nxai Pan area was starting to disperse but there were still good sightings also including kudu, wildebeest, zebra and giraffe.

The clear winter desert nights produced a dazzling display of stars. A spectacular experience, especially when accompanied by the musical sounds of jackal calling from the camp watering hole.

(Note: Accompanying picture is from our Kwando Photo Library which consists of all your great photo submissions over the years, it may not be the most up to date, but we felt it was worthy of a feature alongside this month’s Sightings Report!)